Critical Thinking and Effective Writing

This assignment is intended to help you develop skills in critical thinking and analysis and effective writing, while developing a deeper understanding of some of the most important issues in Pacific Northwest history.

Write a 3-4 page essay (typed double space, standard margins and fonts) that addresses the following question:

1. The question of “who belongs” and who gets treated as an equal and accepted member of Northwest society has been one of the themes of the class. Discuss the major developments in the status of at least TWO groups in Northwest society from the early 1900s to the early 21st century. What shaped their status and relations within Northwest society? How did their status change (or not change) and what have been the consequences of this?

Please read carefully! You must use evidence from at least FOUR sources assigned for the class to support your thesis. Your evidence MUST meet the following requirements:

· You MUST use and cite evidence from at least TWO relevant primary sources of evidence assigned for class.

· You MUST use and cite evidence from EITHER Monica Sone’s Nisei Daughter OR Richard White’s The Organic Machine.

· You MUST use and cite evidence from at least ONE scholarly article assigned for class – you can choose from any of the articles written by the following authors (all of which are available in Canvas): Blackford, Casserly, Catton, Dick, Ewert, Ficken, Findlay, Fisher, Kirkendall, McConaghy, Taylor.

· Do NOT use evidence other than materials assigned for class unless you get my permission to do so.

· You DO NOT need to do research outside of class for the paper. I expect college-level work on this assignment. Therefore, your paper should:

Have a thesis or argument that addresses the paper topic and drives your analysis. Your thesis should be supported throughout the paper by the effective use of evidence. Each paragraph should be adding to the overall argument you are making in your paper. For details of how to construct a thesis see

Use and cite evidence from at least FOUR sources assigned for the class to support your thesis. See the evidence requirements detailed on page 1 of these assignment instructions for full details.

Have an introduction, where you define your thesis, and a logical organization that flows from the thesis.

Have a conclusion where you restate your thesis and explain its significance.

Have effective transitions between paragraphs that add to the overall argument in your paper.

Be a product of your own work only, written specifically for this class. You may not submit assignments produced for other classes for this course.

Provide citations in the text of your paper for all ideas and evidence that are not your own using a consistent and clear citation format. I prefer the Chicago Manual of Style format – see – but it is not required.

Include on the first page your name, the class name and number, and a title for your paper.

Be 3-4 pages long (approximately 1200 – 1300 words) NOT including citations or title page, typed double- spaced with 12 point Times Roman font and standard margins.

Include some direct quotations from the readings as evidence to support your analysis. However, quotes should be used sparingly. Quotes can never stand alone – you MUST provide an introduction/transition and context for quotations. Avoid long “block” quotes, i.e. quotes that are more than 3 lines long.

Be well-written, grammatically correct, without typos or spelling mistakes. The effectiveness and clarity of your writing will be a significant factor in the grades you get for papers. Some final points about this assignment:

These are the criteria I use in evaluating papers for the class:

Thesis – does the paper have a strong and clear argument or thesis in response to the prompt? Do you effectively carry your analysis throughout the paper?

Evidence – is the thesis supported by the effective use of evidence? Is that evidence cited clearly and effectively? Does the paper meet all of the evidence requirements detailed on page 1 of these assignment instructions?

Historical context and themes – do you effectively explain the historical context behind the issues you are examining and link those issues to larger historical themes?

Introduction & conclusion – does your introduction grab the reader’s attention and make them want to read more? Does it provide a “roadmap” for where the paper is going? Does the conclusion sum up your paper’s analysis and make a final case to convince the reader of the validity of that analysis?

Transitions – does the paper flow smoothly, with each paragraph leading smoothly to the next? Are there clear topic sentences (or mini theses) for each paragraph?

Writing quality – is the paper’s prose clear and effective? Does it have grammatical errors? Spelling mistakes? Typos?

Additional Comments – are there any other ways the paper could be improved?
Hist 247

HW 3

In the 19th century, major changes were experienced by the Native people which led them to change their livehood and their habits. One of the first changes that occurred was land claiming. The land that Natives used to call home, and a main source of resources was taken away from them by the White people. The White Americans’ need for more power and money completely transformed the lives of the innocent Native society. Their livehood was changed to farming and being under control of the White settlers. In addition, Native people were forced to change their religion to Catholicism. These changes brought a lot of dissatisfaction and disappointment to their tribes. Not only did the white settlers invade their land but, also, invaded their beliefs and culture. In the book, called “Mourning Dove” it states that, “Her writing about subjects that could be sensitive, such as traditional beliefs or practices mocked by non-Indians.” From this quote, we can conclude that Colville’s traditions weren’t supported by the Whites. The white Americans wanted to completely erase the tradition that Colville society practiced and force them to believe into something else. The Colvilles accepted their new life in hopes for a better future. In hopes, to give their children a chance for a better future, the Colville society united with the White Americans. In response, they started to get formal education which means they had to learn English and send their children to school with other white children. The Colville people started to dress like the Whites did, and consume White American food. After all of these changes, the Colville society still managed to keep their tradition and practices. They did not want the white Americans to control their future and their beliefs.


Dove, Mourning, and Jay Miller. Mourning Dove: a Salishan Autobiography. University of Nebraska Press, 1994.

HW 5

Question 2

The Nisei Daughter book tells a story about American born girl with Japanese heritage. The author, Monica Sone, also described how it felt when being torn between the two cultures in the American Japanese community. The Issei, or first generation of immigrants from Japan were very traditional and stayed in close connection with their culture. They spoke their native language, formed church groups and practiced Japanese traditions. Nisei, or second generation of Japanese immigrants were also connected closely to their Japanese culture and traditions. In addition, the Nisei attended Japanese schools which helped them to improve their Japanese language. But, one main difference between Nisei and Issei was that Nisei were born in America and were considered Americans. Nisei had complete citizenship, unlike Issei who were born in Japan. Another factor that separated the two generations, was that the Nisei were in daily contact with the White Americans. It was normal for Nisei to socialize with the Whites and attend American schools. This was the breaking point for Issei people, because they couldn’t understand why Nisei people would have any contact or social ties with the Whites. “Don’t they realize they, too, have Japanese blood coursing through their veins?”(Sone, 120) This was an issue for Issei because they were confused by Nisei’s actions and assumed it as a betrayal from Nisei side to their Japanese roots.


Sone, Monica Itoi. Nisei Daughter. University of Washington Press, 2014.


Treaty of Medicine Creek, 1854

Articles of agreement and convention made and concluded on the She-nah-nam, or Medicine Creek, in the Territory of Washington, this twenty-sixth day of December, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-four, by Isaac I. Stevens, governor and superintendent of Indian affairs of the said Territory, on the part of the United States, and the undersigned chiefs, head-men, and delegates of the Nisqually, Puyallup, Steilacoom, Squawskin, S’Homamish, Stehchass, T’Peeksin, Squi-aitl, and Sa-heh-wamish tribes and bands of Indians, occupying the lands lying round the head of Puget’s Sound and the adjacent inlets, who, for the purpose of this treaty, are to be regarded as one nation, on behalf of said tribes and bands, and duly authorized by them.


The said tribes and bands of Indians hereby cede, relinquish, and convey to the United States, all their right, title, and interest in and to the lands and country occupied by them, bounded and described as follows, to wit: Commencing at the point on the eastern side of Admiralty Inlet, known as Point Pully, about midway between Commencement and Elliott Bays; thence running in a southeasterly direction, following the divide between the waters of the Puyallup and Dwamish, or White Rivers, to the summit of the Cascade Mountains; thence southerly, along the summit of said range, to a point opposite the main source of the Skookum Chuck Creek; thence to and down said creek, to the coal mine; thence northwesterly, to the summit of the Black Hills; thence northerly, to the upper forks of the Satsop River; thence northeasterly, through the portage known as Wilkes’s Portage, to Point Southworth, on the western side of Admiralty Inlet; thence around the foot of Vashon’s Island, easterly and southeasterly, to the place of beginning.


There is, however, reserved for the present use and occupation of the said tribes and bands, the following tracts of land, viz: The small island called Klah-che-min, situated opposite the mouths of Hammerslev’s and Totten’s Inlets, and separated from Hartstene Island by Peale’s Passage, containing about two sections of land by estimation; a square tract containing two sections, or twelve hundred and eighty acres, on Puget’s Sound, near the mouth of the She-nah-nam Creek, one mile west of the meridian line of the United States land survey, and a square tract containing two sections, or twelve hundred and eighty acres, lying on the south side of Commencement Bay; all which tracts shall be set apart, and, so far as necessary, surveyed and marked out for their exclusive use; nor shall any white man be permitted to reside upon the same without permission of the tribe and the superintendent or agent. And the said tribes and bands agree to remove to and settle upon the same within one year after the ratification of this treaty, or sooner if the means are furnished them. In the mean time, it shall be lawful for them to reside upon any ground not in the actual claim and occupation of citizens of the United States, and upon any ground claimed or occupied, if with the permission of the owner or claimant. If necessary for the public convenience, roads may be run through their reserves, and, on the other hand, the right of way with free access from the same to the nearest public highway is secured to them.


The right of taking fish, at all usual and accustomed grounds and stations, is further secured to said Indians in common with all citizens of the Territory, and of erecting temporary houses for the purpose of curing, together with the privilege of hunting, gathering roots and berries, and pasturing their horses on open and unclaimed lands: Provided, however, That they shall not take shellfish from any beds staked or cultivated by citizens, and that they shall alter all stallions not intended for breeding-horses, and shall keep up and confine the latter.



In consideration of the above session, the United States agree to pay to the said tribes and bands the sum of thirty-two thousand five hundred dollars, in the following manner, that is to say: For the first year after the ratification hereof, three thousand two hundred and fifty dollars; for the next two years, three thousand dollars each year; for the next three years, two thousand dollars each year; for the next four years fifteen hundred dollars each year; for the next five years twelve hundred dollars each year; and for the next five years one thousand dollars each year; all which said sums of money shall be applied to the use and benefit of the said Indians, under the direction of the President of the United States, who may from time to time determine, at his discretion, upon what beneficial objects to expend the same. And the superintendent of Indian affairs, or other proper officer, shall each year inform the President of the wishes of said Indians in respect thereto…. ARTICLE 8.

The aforesaid tribes and bands acknowledge their dependence on the Government of the United States, and promise to be friendly with all citizens thereof, and pledge themselves to commit no depredations on the property of such citizens. And should any one or more of them violate this pledge, and the fact be satisfactorily proved before the agent, the property taken shall be returned, or in default thereof, or if injured or destroyed, compensation may be made by the Government out of their annuities. Nor will they make war on any other tribe except in self-defence, but will submit all matters of difference between them and other Indians to the Government of the United States, or its agent, for decision, and abide thereby….


The above tribes and bands are desirous to exclude from their reservations the use of ardent spirits, and …it is provided, that any Indian belonging to said tribes, who is guilty of bringing liquor into said reservations, or who drinks liquor, may have his or her proportion of the annuities withheld from….


The United States further agree to establish at the general agency for the district of Puget’s Sound, within one year from the ratification hereof, and to support, for a period of twenty years, an agricultural and industrial school, to be free to children of the said tribes and bands, in common with those of the other tribes of said district, and to provide the said school with a suitable instructor or instructors, and also to provide a smithy and carpenter’s shop, and furnish them with the necessary tools, and employ a blacksmith, carpenter, and farmer, for the term of twenty years, to instruct the Indians in their respective occupations. And the United States further agree to employ a physician to reside at the said central agency, who shall furnish medicine and advice to their sick, and shall vaccinate them; the expenses of the said school, shops, employees, and medical attendance, to be defrayed by the United States, and not deducted from the annuities.


The said tribes and bands agree to free all slaves now held by them, and not to purchase or acquire others hereafter.


The said tribes and bands finally agree not to trade at Vancouver’s Island, or elsewhere out of the dominions of the United States; nor shall foreign Indians be permitted to reside in their reservations without consent of the superintendent or agent.



This treaty shall be obligatory on the contracting parties as soon as the same shall be ratified by the President and Senate of the United States. In testimony whereof, the said Isaac I. Stevens, governor and superintendent of Indian Affairs, and the undersigned chiefs, headmen, and delegates of the aforesaid tribes and bands, have hereunto set their hands and seals at the place and on the day and year hereinbefore written.

Isaac I. Stevens, (L.S.) Governor and Superintendent Territory of Washington. Qui-ee-metl, his x mark. (L.S.)

Sno-ho-dumset, his x mark. (L.S.)

Lesh-high, his x mark. (L.S.)

Slip-o-elm, his x mark. (L.S.)

Kwi-ats, his x mark. (L.S.)

Stee-high, his x mark. (L.S.)

Di-a-keh, his x mark. (L.S.)

Hi-ten, his x mark. (L.S.)

Squa-ta-hun, his x mark. (L.S.)

Kahk-tse-min, his x mark. (L.S.)

Sonan-o-yutl, his x mark. (L.S.)

Kl-tehp, his x mark. (L.S.)

Sahl-ko-min, his x mark. (L.S.)

T’bet-ste-heh-bit, his x mark. (L.S.)

Tcha-hoos-tan, his x mark. (L.S.)

Ke-cha-hat, his x mark. (L.S.)

Spee-peh, his x mark. (L.S.)

Swe-yah-tum, his x mark. (L.S.)

Cha-achsh, his x mark. (L.S.)

Pich-kehd, his x mark. (L.S.)

S’Klah-o-sum, his x mark. (L.S.)

Sah-le-tatl, his x mark. (L.S.)

See-lup, his x mark. (L.S.)

E-la-kah-ka, his x mark. (L.S.)

Slug-yeh, his x mark. (L.S.)

Hi-nuk, his x mark. (L.S.)

Ma-mo-nish, his x mark. (L.S.)

Cheels, his x mark. (L.S.)

Knutcanu, his x mark. (L.S.)

Bats-ta-kobe, his x mark. (L.S.)

Win-ne-ya, his x mark. (L.S.)

Klo-out, his x mark. (L.S.)

Se-uch-ka-nam, his x mark. (L.S.)

Ske-mah-han, his x mark. (L.S.)

Wuts-un-a-pum, his x mark. (L.S.)

Quuts-a-tadm, his x mark. (L.S.)

Quut-a-heh-mtsn, his x mark. (L.S.)

Yah-leh-chn, his x mark. (L.S.)

To-lahl-kut, his x mark. (L.S.)

Yul-lout, his x mark. (L.S.)

See-ahts-oot-soot, his x mark. (L.S.)


Ye-takho, his x mark. (L.S.)

We-po-it-ee, his x mark. (L.S.)

Kah-sld, his x mark. (L.S.)

La’h-hom-kan, his x mark. (L.S.)

Pah-how-at-ish, his x mark. (L.S.)

Swe-yehm, his x mark. (L.S.)

Sah-hwill, his x mark. (L.S.)

Se-kwaht, his x mark. (L.S.)

Kah-hum-klt, his x mark. (L.S.)

Yah-kwo-bah, his x mark. (L.S.)

Wut-sah-le-wun, his x mark. (L.S.)

Sah-ba-hat, his x mark. (L.S.)

Tel-e-kish, his x mark. (L.S.)

Swe-keh-nam, his x mark. (L.S.)

Sit-oo-ah, his x mark. (L.S.)

Ko-quel-a-cut, his x mark. (L.S.)

Jack, his x mark. (L.S.)

Keh-kise-bel-lo, his x mark. (L.S.)

Go-yeh-hn, his x mark. (L.S.)

Sah-putsh, his x mark. (L.S.)

William, his x mark. (L.S.)

Executed in the presence of us – –

M. T. Simmons, Indian agent.

James Doty, secretary of the commission.

C. H. Mason, secretary Washington Territory.

W. A. Slaughter, first lieutenant, Fourth Infantry.

James McAlister,

E. Giddings, jr.

George Shazer,

Henry D. Cock,

S. S. Ford, jr.,

John W. McAlister,

Clovington Cushman,

Peter Anderson,

Samuel Klady,

W. H. Pullen,

P. O. Hough,

E. R. Tyerall,

George Gibbs,

Benj. F. Shaw, interpreter,

Hazard Stevens.

Ratified Mar. 3, 1855. Proclaimed Apr. 10, 1855.

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