Bible Study Guide module

New Testament Survey Study Guides: Module/Week 1

Derived from the course text book, The Essence of the New Testament: A Survey (2016),

and the New Testament documents.

Chapter 1: How We Got the New Testament

1.      How many documents make up the New Testament (ENT, 1)?

2.      The New Testament was written approximately between ­­­____ and ____ (ENT, 1).

3.      What kind of materials were the New Testament documents written on (ENT, 1)?

4.      What is the original/actual New Testament document called (ENT, 1–2)?

5.      Define codex in reference to the early New Testament writings (ENT, 2).

6.      What was the Latin codex collection called (ENT, 2)?

7.      In the study of the New Testament, what does the term canon refer to (ENT, 2)?

8.      What three languages did God choose as the media for his self-revelation (ENT, 2)?

9.      The Old Testament was primarily written in ______ (ENT, 2).

10.  Parts of Daniel and Ezra were written in ______ (ENT, 2).

11.  The New Testament was written in ______  (ENT, 2).

12.  ______ ______was the language of the common people (ENT, 2).

13.  Why do you think God allowed the autographs to vanish (see ENT, 3)?

14.  In spite of the absence of the autographs, approximately 6,000 Greek manuscripts and an additional 13,000 fragments of the New Testament documents exist, providing significant manuscript evidence for New Testament scholars (ENT, 3).

15.  Motivators for a New Testament canon include the heretic ________ and the heretical movement known as __________ (ENT, 3).

16.  Marcion was a _____________ who held a negative view of God as presented in the Old Testament (ENT, 3).

17.  Marcion rejected the Old Testament and as a consequence, he only accepted the Gospel according to Luke and ten Pauline epistles (ENT, 3).

18.  ____________ was a movement that developed in the second century AD. This heretical movement believed that salvation was found in attaining “special knowledge” (ENT, 3).

19.  Why are Marcion and Gnosticism so important in relation to a New Testament canon (see ENT, 3)?

20.  Discuss four clues that indicate a canonical consciousness among earliest Christians (ENT, 3–5).

21.  Name and describe the six tests for recognizing whether a book should be considered part of the canon (ENT, 5–6)?

22.  Name two so-called Gospels that were not considered authoritative for Christians because they fail the criteria for canonicity (ENT, 6).

23.  What does the a priori argument for the New Testament canon of Scripture state (ENT, 6–7)?

24.  Delineate the five points of the premise upon which the a priori argument for the New Testament canon is based (ENT, 7).

25.  What is the name of the Greek translation of the Hebrew Old Testament that was produced about 200 years before the birth of Christ (200–250 B.C.) (ENT, 7)?

26.  Aramaic translations of the Hebrew Old Testament were known as ________ (ENT, 7).

27.  What is the difference between an essentially literal translation theory and the functional or dynamic equivalence theory (ENT, 10–12)?

Chapter 2: Interpreting the New Testament

1.      Describe the approach to interpreting the Bible recommended in the Essence of the New Testament (ENT, 15).

2.      The view that “readers of Scripture must understand the grammar and the historical setting of the passage in order to understand correctly and apply any passage with confidence” is known as the __________________________ to Scripture (ENT, 15).

3.      Decisions regarding interpretation are filtered through a person’s _______________ (ENT, 15).

4.      What two universal concepts should you keep in mind when reading the Bible (ENT, 16)?

5.      What three types of context are crucial to correctly interpreting Scripture (ENT, 16–17)?

6.      ______________ happens when a verse of Scripture is quoted to prove a point without considering the literary context of the verse (ENT, 17).

7.      Can proof texting be done correctly? If yes, explain (ENT, 17).

8.      The analogy of faith refers to the principle that “Scripture will never contradict ____________” (ENT, 17).

9.      The process of interpretation begins with ______________ (ENT, 18).

10.  Name the seven things to look for when observing sentences (ENT, 19–20).

11.  Name the five items to look for when observing paragraphs (ENT, 21).

12.  What is the definition of the term “genre” (ENT, 21–22)?

13.  What is the genre of the four Gospels (ENT, 22)?

14.  The New Testament letters were intended to be __________ __________ for the authors who were not able to be present (ENT, 25).

15.  What is the main principle of interpreting the letters of the New Testament (ENT, 25–26)?

16.  Define textual criticism (ENT, 26–27).

17.  Define source criticism (ENT, 27).

18.  Define form criticism (ENT, 27).

19.  Define redaction criticism (ENT, 27).

20.  Define literary criticism (ENT, 27).

21.  Define sociological criticism (ENT, 27).

22.  Correctly interpreting Scripture is important for at least two reasons. These are ______ and ______ (ENT, 28).


Chapter 3: The History Between the Testaments

1.      Approximately how long does the history of the Jewish people between the Old and New Testaments cover (ENT, 31)?

2.      What is the timeframe of the Babylonian Captivity (ENT, 31)?

3.      What is the timeframe of the Medo-Persian Period (ENT, 32)?

4.      What is the timeframe of the Grecian Period (ENT, 33)?

5.      What is the timeframe of the Maccabean Revolt and Jewish Independence (ENT, 36)?

6.      What is the timeframe of the Roman Period (ENT, 37)?

7.      Jerusalem fell to ______________, king of Bablyon, in 586 BC (ENT, 31).

8.      The __________ was destroyed when Jerusalem fell to the Babylonians in 586 BC (ENT, 31).

9.      Name the Medo-Persian king who defeated the Babylonians in 539 BC (ENT, 32).

10.  The Jerusalem temple was rebuilt by 516 BC under the leadership of ____ and _____; and with the encouragement of the prophets ____ and ____ (ENT, 32).

11.  During the Medo-Persian, __________ began replacing Hebrew as the common language of the region of Judea (ENT, 32).

12.  The expansion of the Greek culture that began under Alexander the Great is called “______________” (ENT, 33).

13.  What does the term “Hasidim” mean (ENT, 36)?

14.  What Jewish leader gained control of and rededicated the Temple by 164 BC (ENT, 36)?

15.  ____________ is the celebration of the rededication of the Temple under Judas Maccabeus in 164 BC (ENT, 36).

16.  Name the Roman general who captured Jerusalem in 63 BC (ENT, 37).

17.  ________ eventually conquered Jerusalem and became “Herod the Great,” king of the Jews, reigning from 37–4 BC (ENT, 37).

18.  Name and briefly describe the six religious groups that formed during the Intertestamental Period (ENT, 38–39).

19.  Discuss the significance of synagogues (ENT, 39).


Chapter 4: The Essence of the Synoptic Problem and Jesus Studies

1.      The _______   __________ refers to the phenomena of both significant similarities and differences in the content of Matthew, Mark, and Luke (ENT, 42–45).

2.      Mathew, Mark, and Luke have been called the “_________ _______” since Griesbach’s study in which he arranged these three Gospels in parallel columns (ENT, 43).

3.      Instead of presenting a comprehensive account of Jesus’ life, the four Gospels contain _____________ _____________ presentations of the sayings and deeds of Jesus” (ENT, 45).

4.      In attempting to answer the question of sources, scholars must examine both the ______ and the ______ evidence (ENT, 46).

5.      Related to the question of written sources for the canonical Gospels, what does the external evidence consist of (ENT, 46)?

6.      The doctrine of ______________ affirms the accuracy of the written Word of God (ENT, 46).

7.      Where does the earliest testimony regarding the origin of the Synoptic Gospels come from (ENT, 47)?

8.      Name this theory regarding the interdependence of the Synoptic Gospels (ENT, 48).


Matthew (Jesus as King)


Mark (Jesus as King)

Luke (Jesus as Priest)

9.      Name this theory regarding the interdependence of the Synoptic Gospels (49).







10.  Name this theory regarding the interdependence of the Synoptic Gospels (50).

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