Legal Proposal

I have a proposal which needs some editing by following the comments in the attached file (Proporas The Right to Live …)

Edit the topic & research question to fit and match the comments in the filed mentioned.

I want to have the overall proposal to be consistent & matching with the comments.

A working title of the topic area • This is solely for the purposes of your proposal. You will be able to

modify your title during the course of your research.

Research Context

• This is the background against which your research will be carried out.

• It should be a brief introduction outlining the general area of study and identifying the subject area within which your study falls.

• You should also refer to the current state of knowledge and any recent debates on the subject.

• You need to reference this in the same way as you would do if you were writing an essay, for example any articles or books you refer to should be footnoted with the full details of author, title, publication date and so on

Research Issues, aims or questions you intend to address

• Against the background provided in the research content above, you

need to set out the contribution that your research will make. It is normally best to do this in the form of specific aims or research questions/issues.

Identifying existing literature

• A student needs to identify the main literature in the area and to demonstrate awareness of the major existing debates. Specific sources should be identified and cited.

• The purpose of this section is not to provide a detailed summary, but to identify the ways in which the applicant’s research is able to make a contribution: what are the gaps? Which elements remain unresolved or untested? What new light remains to be shed?

• All literature cited should be fully referenced and included in the bibliography. This is an important demonstration of your research skills. The existing literature which you review can be located in a variety of places: academic journals, NGO reports, academic monographs (books), policy papers, Court decisions and so on.

Significance of Your Proposed Work

• This section should demonstrate how your research ‘fills a gap’ in existing research.

• Explain why your research is important – it is not enough to say that this has not been studied previously, you need to explain why it should be studied, that is why it is interesting/important.

• This should be the substantial section of your proposal.

Research Methods • This section should explain whether your research will be library-based and/or will involve

fieldwork/empirical data. • Give some detail on exactly how you will obtain your information. • Most legal research is library-based, relying on information that already exists; such as journal

articles, case reports, legislation, treaties, historical records. Some studies, however, might require the use of fieldwork or empirical data – that is, gathering information through direct interaction with people and processes, such as interviews, questionnaires or court observation.

• Assuming you plan to rely on library-based research, you need to explain where your sources are located and how they will be accessed, for example via the library, internet, Lexis or Westlaw. If your research is a comparative or international study, you will need to explain how you will obtain the relevant international materials and whether or not this will involve travel.

• If you plan to undertake fieldwork or collect empirical data, you need to provide details about why this is an appropriate research method, who you plan to interview, how many interviews you will carry out, and so on.

• In this section, you should also explain any special skills you have that will assist you in obtaining information, for example, if you plan to look at French law and you can read/speak French.

Time Scale and Tentative Contents

You should provide a very approximate timetable for the research. For example: • Week 1-3 reading theoretical material and developing theoretical

framework. • Week 4 – completing a proposal • Week 5-7 reading and analysing KSA materials + writing a chapter / analysis • Week 8-10 reading and analysing International / Comparative materials +

writing chapter / analysis • Week 11-12 – writing chapter / anlysis + complete draft work • Week 13-14– polishing + further research on gaps + complete writing • Week 15 – defending project


• This section does not count towards the word limit of project. The bibliography goes beyond cited work and includes literature that will be followed up or used in the research project.

The Abortion (the title need to be specific) ((The Abortion and the legal punishment in Saudi Arabia for people that force others


In Saudi Arabia, abortion is limited to medical evidence that proves two elements. Firstly, that the physical and mental health of the woman is at peril; and secondly, that the fetus is four months or less (Hessini, 2007). In case the unborn baby is more than four months old, a handpicked board of permitted experts must assert that the pregnancy would be fatal to the mother of the child. Outside of these elements, abortion remains illegal within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The Research Problem is abortion limits the right to life as it denies an unborn child a chance to live.

Literature Survey:

Fetal viability is the capacity of a fetus outside uterine conditions with the support of technology. Fetal feasibility is achieved in the 12th week. The concept of viability was established in the landmark case Roe vs. Wade, where abortion was only illegal if the fetus was viable. The state opined that it was infringing against the right to liberty if it controlled every aspect of a woman’s life to the point of dictating over her reproductive rights. Germany’s abortion laws consider two elements, which include medical necessity (beyond the first trimester, where the mental and psychological state of the woman is at risk) and the first trimester (12weeks) in which a fetus is unviable. The law in Saudi Arabia takes a similar approach, especially on the elements of medical necessity. However, for Germany, the law mandates counseling after the procedure to ensure the mental and emotional wellbeing of the woman. In China, abortion is legal and offered in government facilities to address three issues, including crime control (limiting backstreet abortions that cause death), population control, and women’s reproductive rights. In the United Kingdom, abortion is legal but only if practiced under the strict supervision of a medical professional and up to the 28th week of conception, meaning that the state disregards the concept of fetal viability.

Under the concept of fetal viability, a fetus does not have personhood in the legal and medical sense if it is unviable. Personhood considers the satisfaction of at least one of these elements, such as consciousness and ability to make decisions. An unviable fetus is devoid of these characteristics. Thus, abortion does not limit the right to life in such a situation. However, the right is only defined in instances where abortion is procured even after the attainment of viability.

Britain and China’s abortion laws are justified by the government’s need to control population growth by extending women’s productive rights past fetal viability. China also precludes gender-selective abortions. Germany and Saudi Arabia’s rules focus on the right to life more than the woman’s reproductive rights, requiring medical evidence to support the procurement of an abortion past viability.

Research Objectives and Research Questions ( the questions need to be more ):

The objectives of the research are to elucidate that abortion is a reproductive right that does not restrict the right to life because of the issue of fetal viability. Also to explain the concept of fetal viability for the audience to understand that the right to life is not breached whenever an abortion is procured. In addition the research question is what is fetal viability?

The objectives of the research are to elucidate that abortion is a reproductive right that does not restrict the right to life because of the issue of fetal viability. Also to explain the concept of fetal viability for the audience to understand that the right to life is not breached whenever an abortion is procured. And to recommend grater oversight on medical by the hospitals and drugs.


The quantitative research technique is the most appropriate for the work because it collects and compares legislation and case law from different countries against those in Saudi Arabia. The research will initially focus on abortion laws, fetal viability, and cases in the USA. Then the focus will be shifted to discuss and explore laws, fetal viability, and case law in Saudi Arabia and comparing it with other countries like Germany, Britain, and China, Finally, the research will be reviewed and conclusions will be drawn.

Scope and Limitation:

The research discusses the legal and medical aspect of abortion. For the legal element, it delves into the laws and practices in different states while comparing them to Saudi Arabia. The therapeutic portion discusses the concept of viability.

Sample Bibliography:

Epstein, C. F. (2018). About abortion. Sociological Forum, 33(2), 559-562.

Hessini, L. (2007). Abortion and Islam: policies and practice in the Middle East and North Africa. Reproductive Health Matters, 15(29), 75-84.

Kapp, N., Baldwin, M. K., & Rodriguez, M. I. (2018). Efficacy of medical abortion prior to 6 gestational weeks: a systematic review. Contraception, 97(2), 90-99.

Kavanagh, A., Wielding, S., Cochrane, R., Sim, J., Johnstone, A., & Cameron, S. (2018). ‘Abortion’ or ‘termination of pregnancy?’ Views from abortion care providers in Scotland, UK. BMJ Sex Reprod Health 2018, 44, 122-127.

Potter, R. Β. (2018). The abortion debate. In Reaction to the Modern Women’s Movement, 1963 to the Present (pp. 13-26). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Segers, M. C., & Byrnes, T. A. (2016). Abortion politics in American states. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Xiaoxin, W. (2018). The development of abortion in China: A social legal study. Journal Undang-undang & Masyarakat (Journal of Law & Society), 11.

Zhu, W. X., Lu, L., & Hesketh, T. (2009). China’s excess males, sex selective abortion, and one child policy: analysis of data from 2005 national inter-census survey. Population Management Journal, 338, b1211.


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