Ethical principals

Adhering to ethical principles and protection of human subjects are important considerations in all forms of research.

Ethical principals are the morals that one needs to follow when doing research. Protection of human subjects is a broad statement in my opinion. Protection of what their permission to study them (informed consent), their vulnerability, their risk/benefit of participating, will they be harmed in anyway. These are all topics that “human subjects” need to be protected from. These are also topics that need to be considered before the study is even conducted, they need to be considered in the very beginning.

How stringent or similar should these ethical principles be to the standards placed on the conduction of clinical and/or educational research?

The same principles that are used to conduct the clinical research should also be used in educational research. When research is done in a clinical research and a d=education research “human subjects” are involved in both. There is also a risk/benefit ratio and everyone still needs to give consent. The risk/benefit ratio should be low risk to the all involved and the benefit may not exist but should most definitely cause no harm.

Offer examples where controversy exists regarding application of ethical principles in evidence-based practice projects, best practices in education versus clinical research?

During the Guatemala sexually transmitted disease study participants where not informed of what was going to happen to them. The participants were exposed to syphilis and other diseases and then they were treated. According to Murray (2014) the researcher should be one that is qualified to do research. Just as in the Guatemala study the researcher was not qualified to do the study so it was not preformed correctly and all participants were not protected.

Be sure to address HIPAA and FERPA depending on your focus – clinical practice vs academic education.

HIPAA pertains to not just the patient’s privacy rights that come to mind when you hear the word. HIPAA encompasses the participant, participant’s rights and their personal records. HIPAA would apply to a participant in the clinical practice. FERPA allows parents to be able to access their minor children’s records. FERPA is in place to protect minor participants and their parents. FERPA is used when the participant is in an academic educational setting.


Grove, S. K., & Burns, N. (2017). The Practice of Nursing Research: Appraisal, Synthesis, and Generation of Evidence (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders.

Murray, J. S., PhD. (2014). Recognizing ethical issues in research. Clinical Scholars Review, 7(1), 63-69. Retrieved from

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